Riviste scientifiche

Don't miss: Sci-fi The Orbital Children on Netflix

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 19:00
New Scientist's weekly round-up of the best books, films, TV series, games and more that you shouldn't miss

Fascinating objects illuminate the European Space Agency's history

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 19:00
From synthetic bone to quick-change spacesuits, the diverse fruits of ESA's space exploration make for a fabulous online photographic collection, ESA ESTEC in 99 Objects

Otherlands review: A fascinating journey through Earth's history

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 19:00
In Otherlands, palaeobiologist Thomas Halliday uses a mix of science and imagination to show us the weird and wonderful landscapes and life forms of the early Earth

How does the sun shine? Here's why we are still a little in the dark

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 19:00
The basics of how fusion works inside stars like the sun is more complicated than it is sometimes portrayed. We shouldn't be surprised that the details are imperfectly understood, writes Chanda Prescod-Weinstein

What really makes people happy – and can you learn to be happier?

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 19:00
Our life satisfaction is shaped by many things including our genes and relative wealth, but there is now good evidence that you can boost your basic happiness with these key psychological strategies

Is Pluto a planet? The Spanish government's tax portal says it is

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 19:00
An online security test stumbles upon a fierce debate, plus loud and inebriated birds, in Feedback’s weekly round-up

Toxic chemicals are everywhere in our daily lives – can we avoid them?

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 19:00
Food and household goods are covered in jargon about the chemicals they do or don't contain, but seeing through the labelling is harder than you might think, says Anna Turns

Station Eleven review: An uplifting vision of a post-pandemic world

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 19:00
A TV adaptation of the hit 2014 novel by Emily St John Mandel shows that culture and humanity can survive even the collapse of civilisation

Svalbard glacier ice loss projected to roughly double by 2100

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 17:00
Unearthing archive photos of the Norwegian archipelago's glaciers enabled researchers to reconstruct past melting and project ice mass loss under future climate change

Weird black hole spewed star-forming jets 500 light years long

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 17:00
Black holes located in dwarf galaxies usually stop star formation, but now one has been seen seeding new stars through a huge plume of ionised gas

UK companies could face fines for failing to patch Log4j vulnerability

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 15:43
A security flaw discovered in December 2021 makes private data vulnerable to hackers – and the UK government could take action against firms that fail to fix it

Covid-19 news: Most short-term vaccine symptoms down to nocebo effect

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 15:12
The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

Reporting bias in clinical trials: Progress toward transparency and next steps

PLoS Medicine - Me, 19/01/2022 - 15:00

by Mayookha Mitra-Majumdar, Aaron S. Kesselheim

Mayookha Mitra-Majumdar and Aaron Kesselheim reflect on steps taken to combat reporting bias in clinical trials over the last two decades.

Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy: Updated comparisons and meta-analyses of newer versus older trials

PLoS Medicine - Me, 19/01/2022 - 15:00

by Erick H. Turner, Andrea Cipriani, Toshi A. Furukawa, Georgia Salanti, Ymkje Anna de Vries

Background

Valid assessment of drug efficacy and safety requires an evidence base free of reporting bias. Using trial reports in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug approval packages as a gold standard, we previously found that the published literature inflated the apparent efficacy of antidepressant drugs. The objective of the current study was to determine whether this has improved with recently approved drugs.

Methods and findings

Using medical and statistical reviews in FDA drug approval packages, we identified 30 Phase II/III double-blind placebo-controlled acute monotherapy trials, involving 13,747 patients, of desvenlafaxine, vilazodone, levomilnacipran, and vortioxetine; we then identified corresponding published reports. We compared the data from this newer cohort of antidepressants (approved February 2008 to September 2013) with the previously published dataset on 74 trials of 12 older antidepressants (approved December 1987 to August 2002).Using logistic regression, we examined the effects of trial outcome and trial cohort (newer versus older) on transparent reporting (whether published and FDA conclusions agreed). Among newer antidepressants, transparent publication occurred more with positive (15/15 = 100%) than negative (7/15 = 47%) trials (OR 35.1, CI95% 1.8 to 693). Controlling for trial outcome, transparent publication occurred more with newer than older trials (OR 6.6, CI95% 1.6 to 26.4). Within negative trials, transparent reporting increased from 11% to 47%.We also conducted and contrasted FDA- and journal-based meta-analyses. For newer antidepressants, FDA-based effect size (ESFDA) was 0.24 (CI95% 0.18 to 0.30), while journal-based effect size (ESJournals) was 0.29 (CI95% 0.23 to 0.36). Thus, effect size inflation, presumably due to reporting bias, was 0.05, less than for older antidepressants (0.10).Limitations of this study include a small number of trials and drugs—belonging to a single class—and a focus on efficacy (versus safety).

Conclusions

Reporting bias persists but appears to have diminished for newer, compared to older, antidepressants. Continued efforts are needed to further improve transparency in the scientific literature.

The happiness revolution: How to boost the well-being of society

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 13:00
We now know that economic growth doesn’t necessarily translate into greater well-being. A closer look at Nordic countries such as Finland reveals surprising truths about what really makes a happy society and how other governments can emulate their success

Climate change made the past 7 years the warmest on record

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 09:00
The World Meteorological Organization finds 2021 was the seventh hottest to date, at 1.11°C above pre-industrial levels  

Dinosaur ancestor of long-necked Diplodocus ran swiftly on two legs

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 01:01
The gigantic and slow sauropod dinosaurs like Diplodocus had small two-legged ancestors – and one, Thecodontosaurus, was quick and nimble

Air pollution makes it harder for pollinators to find plants

New Scientist - Me, 19/01/2022 - 01:01
Levels of nitrogen oxides and ozone on a par with average concentrations next to major UK roads led to a reduction in the number of pollinators counted on the crops by up to 70 per cent

New-to-science tarantula that lives inside bamboo found by YouTuber

New Scientist - Ma, 18/01/2022 - 19:06
A species of tarantula seems to live exclusively inside hollow bamboo stems, which no other tarantula is known to do

Will 5G mobile networks in the US really interfere with aircraft?

New Scientist - Ma, 18/01/2022 - 17:52
US telecoms companies plan to turn on 5G networks across the US, but airline bosses warn that potential interference with planes could cause a "catastrophic" crisis
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