Riviste scientifiche

Vesper review: Exquisite dystopian sci-fi has a Brothers Grimm edge

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 20:00
Set on an Earth where the ecosystem has collapsed, this ravishing sci-fi film is centred on Vesper, a young girl struggling to find a cure for her paralysed father

Defining what constitutes a 'new' species isn't straightforward

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 20:00
Even at this time of rapid extinction, there are many species to be discovered, but we need to take care over what we mean when referring to "new species", says Penny Sarchet

To encourage sustainability, we must remember we are apes, not angels

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 20:00
If we want to change our consumerist society, we need greener status signals that appeal to our animal instincts, says Solitaire Townsend

Earth's algae and moss could survive under the light of another star

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 18:28
Experiments on Earth mimicking the rays from a red dwarf star show that cyanobacteria, algae and moss can grow under these light conditions, backing the idea that some exoplanets could host life

DNA records reveal mass migration from Europe into Anglo-Saxon Britain

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 18:00
People in the east of England in early mediaeval times could trace three-quarters of their ancestry to recent migrants from continental Europe.

Nature, nurture, luck: Why you are more than just genes and upbringing

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 18:00
Your genes and environment play a big part in forming you, but there is an unexplored third element at play too: luck. The chance events that shape your brain in the womb may influence who you become as much as your genetics, and perhaps even more than the effect of parenting

Enceladus shown to have all six of the essential elements for life

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 16:18
Reanalysis of icy rock grains from a ring of Saturn – fed by ice plumes from its moon Enceladus – has revealed the presence of phosphorus, the only key essential element for life that hadn’t already been spotted

Childhood body mass index trajectories and associations with adult-onset chronic kidney disease in Denmark: A population-based cohort study

PLoS Medicine - Me, 21/09/2022 - 16:00

by Julie Aarestrup, Kim Blond, Dorte Vistisen, Marit E. Jørgensen, Marie Frimodt-Møller, Britt W. Jensen, Jennifer L. Baker

Background

Although excess adult adiposity is a strong risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), evidence for associations with early life body size is limited. We investigated whether childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectories are associated with adult-onset CKD and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) using a population-based cohort. Further, we examined the role of adult-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) in these associations.

Methods and findings

We included 151,506 boys and 148,590 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930 to 1987 with information on measured weights and heights at ages 6 to 15 years. Five sex-specific childhood BMI trajectories were analyzed. Information on the main outcomes CKD and ESKD, as well as T2D, came from national health registers. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression adjusted for year of birth. During a median of 30.8 person-years of follow-up, 5,968 men and 3,903 women developed CKD and 977 men and 543 women developed ESKD. For both sexes, the rates of CKD and ESKD increased significantly with higher child BMI trajectories in comparison with the average BMI trajectory (40% to 43% of individuals) and the below-average BMI trajectory (21% to 23% of individuals) had the lowest rates. When including T2D, most associations were significant and men (IRR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.72) and women (IRR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.86) with the obese childhood BMI trajectory (2% of individuals) had significantly higher CKD rates than the average BMI trajectory, whereas for ESKD, the associations were positive, but nonsignificant, for men (IRR = 1.38, 95% CI: 0.83 to 2.31) but significant for women (IRR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.25 to 3.11) with the obese BMI trajectory. A main study limitation is the use of only hospital-based CKD diagnoses.

Conclusions

Individuals with childhood BMI trajectories above average had higher rates of CKD and ESKD than those with an average childhood BMI trajectory. When including T2D, most associations were significant, particularly with CKD, emphasizing the potential information that the early appearance of above-average BMI growth patterns provide in relation to adult-onset CKD beyond the information provided by T2D development.

Cheetahs are back in India but conservationists have doubts over plan

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 14:23
India plans to introduce up to 36 cheetahs in Kuno National Park, but conservationists warn the habitat isn't big enough to support a stable population

Your gut microbes may influence how ill you get with malaria

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 10:00
After being bitten by malaria-carrying mosquitoes, people with a certain mix of gut bacteria had much higher levels of the parasite in their blood than those with different microbes

Engine based on Maxwell’s demon concept may help us understand entropy

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 23:46
Researchers have built an engine based on a famous thought experiment called Maxwell’s demon, and it may help us understand how entropy is produced

Woodpecker brains process their own tree-drumming as if it's birdsong

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 21:00
The brain circuitry that lets birds learn songs is active when woodpeckers drum on trees, suggesting the abilities may have emerged from similar evolutionary processes

Woodpecker brains process tree-drumming sounds as if they're birdsong

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 21:00
The brain circuitry that lets birds learn songs is active when woodpeckers hear drumming on trees, suggesting the abilities may have emerged from similar evolutionary processes

A third of scientists working on AI say it could cause global disaster

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 20:54
A survey of artificial intelligence researchers found that 36 per cent believe AIs could cause a catastrophe on the scale of nuclear war

Quantum memory device could make real-world quantum internet possible

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 20:29
A quantum memory device can store information at room temperature – a step towards building a quantum internet that could transmit secure data across fibre-optic cables

Amphibian deaths in Central America led to malarial mosquito surge

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 19:00
Tadpoles of frogs, toads and salamanders eat the larvae of mosquitoes, which spread malaria

World’s richest countries fall short on renewable energy targets

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 18:10
Eleven of the 20 largest economies got a C or worse on a renewable energy report card, which assessed their plans to reach net zero and their targets for producing and using renewable energy

Brian Cox and Jeff Forshaw confront the black hole information paradox

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 18:00
The particle physicists explain the latest thinking on what happens to the stuff that falls into black holes – and what it reveals about the deepest structure of the universe

Ten must-see talks at this year's New Scientist Live

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 17:00
From conspiracy theories to black holes, ultra-processed foods to the great climate upheaval, these are the talks you don't want to miss at this year's New Scientist Live, says Rowan Hooper

NASA is ready to knock an asteroid off course with its DART spacecraft

New Scientist - Ma, 20/09/2022 - 11:57
The Double Asteroid Redirection Test is preparing to crash into the asteroid Dimorphos in an attempt to change its orbit
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