Riviste scientifiche

Physicists found the shortest measurement to collapse a quantum state

New Scientist - Ve, 23/09/2022 - 00:14
Measuring a quantum object makes it lose its odd quantum properties, and it only takes between 0.1 billionth and 0.1 sextillionth of a second

Decarbonising the shipping industry will cost more than $1 trillion

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 23:30
Powering all shipping vessels with zero-emission fuels by 2050 would slash the industry's emissions, but it would require between $1 trillion and $1.4 trillion of investment

Web of blood vessels helps protect whales’ brains while swimming

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 21:00
When a whale pumps its tail up and down to swim, a wave of increased blood pressure moves from the tail to the head – but a network of vessels redirects the animal’s blood to protect the brain

These male hummingbirds evolved to be tiny so they can do cool dives

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 20:09
Male bee hummingbirds evolved to be much smaller than females, possibly because their diminutive size allows them to make faster and more elaborate courtship flights

Too many electric cars charging at night may overload electrical grid

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 18:00
As electric car ownership rises, we will need new infrastructure to avoid overwhelming electricity grids – including public charging stations and more daytime charging

Scientists who discovered cause of narcolepsy win Breakthrough Prize

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 16:00
Emmanuel Mignot and Masashi Yanagisawa won the 2023 Breakthrough Prize in life sciences for their discovery of the molecular mechanisms in the brain that cause the sleep disorder narcolepsy  

Correction: Factors influencing appropriate use of interventions for management of women experiencing preterm birth: A mixed-methods systematic review and narrative synthesis

PLoS Medicine - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 16:00

by Rana Islamiah Zahroh, Alya Hazfiarini, Katherine E. Eddy, Joshua P. Vogel, Ӧzge Tunçalp, Nicole Minckas, Fernando Althabe, Olufemi T. Oladapo, Meghan A. Bohren

Association of injury after prescription opioid initiation with risk for opioid-related adverse events among older Medicare beneficiaries in the United States: A nested case-control study

PLoS Medicine - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 16:00

by Yu-Jung Jenny Wei, Cheng Chen, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Siegfried O. Schmidt, Roger B. Fillingim, Almut G. Winterstein

Background

Injury, prevalent and potentially associated with prescription opioid use among older adults, has been implicated as a warning sign of serious opioid-related adverse events (ORAEs) including opioid misuse, dependence, and poisoning, but this association has not been empirically tested. The study aims to examine the association between incident injury after prescription opioid initiation and subsequent risk of ORAEs and to assess whether the association differs by recency of injury among older patients.

Methods and findings

This nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 126,752 individuals aged 65 years or older selected from a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries in the United States between 2011 and 2018. Cohort participants were newly prescribed opioid users with chronic noncancer pain who had no injury or ORAEs in the year before opioid initiation, had 30 days or more of observation, and had at least 1 additional opioid prescription dispensed during follow-up. We identified ORAE cases as patients who had an inpatient or outpatient encounter with diagnosis codes for opioid misuse, dependence, or poisoning. During a mean follow-up of 1.8 years, we identified 2,734 patients who were newly diagnosed with ORAEs and 10,936 controls matched on the year of cohort entry date and a disease risk score (DRS), a summary score derived from the probability of an ORAE outcome based on covariates measured prior to cohort entry and in the absence of injury. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORAE risk associated with any and recency of injury, defined based on the primary diagnosis code of inpatient and outpatient encounters. Among the cases and controls, 68.0% (n = 1,859 for cases and n = 7,436 for controls) were women and the mean (SD) age was 74.5 (6.9) years. Overall, 54.0% (n = 1,475) of cases and 46.0% (n = 1,259) of controls experienced incident injury after opioid initiation. Patients with (versus without) injury after opioid therapy had higher risk of ORAEs after adjustment for time-varying confounders, including diagnosis of tobacco or alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, chronic pain diagnosis, mental health disorder, pain-related comorbidities, frailty index, emergency department visit, skilled nursing facility stay, anticonvulsant use, and patterns of prescription opioid use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 1.5; P < 0.001). Increased risk of ORAEs was associated with current (≤30 days) injury (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI 2.3 to 3.4; P < 0.001), whereas risk of ORAEs was not significantly associated with recent (31 to 90 days; aOR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.17; P = 0.48), past (91 to 180 days; aOR = 1.08; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.33; P = 0.51), and remote (181 to 365 days; aOR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.1; P = 0.18) injury preceding the incident diagnosis of ORAE or matched date. Patients with injury and prescription opioid use versus those with neither in the month before the ORAE or matched date were at greater risk of ORAEs (aOR = 5.0; 95% CI 4.1 to 6.1; P < 0.001). Major limitations are that the study findings can only be generalized to older Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries and that unknown or unmeasured confounders have the potential to bias the observed association toward or away from the null.

Conclusions

In this study, we observed that incident diagnosis of injury following opioid initiation was associated with subsequent increased risk of ORAEs, and the risk was only significant among patients with injury in the month before the index date. Regular monitoring for injury may help identify older opioid users at high risk for ORAEs.

Bubble of hot electrons seen hurtling around our galaxy’s black hole

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 15:00
For about two hours, a bubble of extremely hot electrons whirled around the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole at 30 per cent of the speed of light, and then it was destroyed

Astronomers trace fireball in Earth's skies to space rock that made it

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 14:28
In an effort to learn more about near-Earth asteroids, astronomers have used telescopic surveys to find an image of a space rock that produced a 0.4-kiloton fireball over the Pacific Ocean

Lemurs hug tree trunks to cool down when temperatures top 30°C

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 13:02
A type of lemur called a white sifaka embraces the base of some trees to release heat, with the bottom of the trunk being up to 5°C cooler than the surrounding air

What’s the best recipe for bubble mixture? Scientists have the answer

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 10:00
Physicists have found that adding guar gum and glycerol to a detergent solution helped to create large, long-lasting soap bubbles

Sperm move in packs like cyclists to push through thick vaginal fluid

New Scientist - Gi, 22/09/2022 - 07:15
In mock-ups of the female reproductive tract, bull sperm cluster in groups of two to four, which seems to help them swim upstream

Married women who work during middle age are happier later in life

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 23:00
In heterosexual married couples, women are happier later in life when both partners work in middle age, researchers find

Drone swarm that 3D prints cement structures could construct buildings

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 21:46
Bit by bit, drones can print structures made of foam and cement. The technique could transform future construction sites and post-disaster reconstruction

Bananas threatened by devastating fungus given temporary resistance

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 21:00
A way to make Cavendish banana plants temporarily resistant to Fusarium fungus could lead to new ways to protect them from Panama disease

Mosquitoes are being genetically modified so they can't spread malaria

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 21:00
Gene editing mosquitoes so they die before malaria parasites can develop inside them could stop the spread of the deadly parasite entirely, according to lab studies and computer models

JWST has captured an astonishing view of Neptune and its rings

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 20:00
A new image from the James Webb Space Telescope shows eight of Neptune’s moons and four of its rings – two of which haven’t been seen in more than 30 years

Two provocative new novels inject some fantasy into the sci-fi outlook

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 20:00
Ling Ma's Bliss Montage and Christopher Priest's Expect Me Tomorrow use fantasy to address real issues. Will this perspective energise people to do something about the future, asks Sally Adee

Don't Miss: Galwad, a multimedia climate-responsibility experience

New Scientist - Me, 21/09/2022 - 20:00
New Scientist's weekly round-up of the best books, films, TV series, games and more that you shouldn't miss
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