Riviste scientifiche

Human and robot chemists work better together than alone

New Scientist - Lu, 24/01/2022 - 11:13
A new system helps labs determine the most efficient way to produce target molecules by utilising the strengths of humans and robots

[Editorial] Antimicrobial resistance: time to repurpose the Global Fund

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major cause of death globally, with a burden likely to be higher than that of HIV or malaria, according to the most comprehensive assessment of bacterial AMR to date published in The Lancet. The data presented in this analysis are striking: in 2019, the deaths of 4·95 million people were associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. 1·27 million deaths were directly caused by AMR. For the first time, the study provides estimates for 204 countries and territories, as well as data for the regional impacts of AMR.

[Comment] Peanut oral immunotherapy in very young children

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
Peanut oral immunotherapy is a disease-modifying treatment to raise the peanut quantity necessary to trigger an allergic reaction. Among children older than 4 years undergoing peanut oral immunotherapy, nearly 75–80% achieve desensitisation, although few gain lasting protection (eg, remission) after discontinuing oral immunotherapy.1 Efficacy is balanced by an increased risk of treatment-associated anaphylaxis versus peanut avoidance, a preference-sensitive consideration manageable in partnership with a supervising allergist.

[Comment] Gene therapy offers new hope for children with metachromatic leukodystrophy

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding arylsulfatase A (ARSA), causing disease in the central and peripheral nervous systems. MLD presents in toddlers (late infantile disease) or in children (juvenile disease) with gait disturbances, loss of developmental milestones, and cognitive decline, leading to death in childhood. It is frequently not diagnosed until the later symptomatic phase when it is too late to intervene.

[Comment] Progress in neonate safety

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
Safety for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients is essential for care of the most vulnerable infants and their families. Education and adaptation of practices that have evidence-based results can lead to improvement in outcomes, even for the most critically ill neonates.1 There are many reviews of quality improvement initiatives in NICUs to reduce complications.2–5 Adverse events can be reduced through quality-improvement methodology.6

[Comment] Offline: COVID-19 as culture war

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
When Dr Anthony Fauci challenged Senator Rand Paul last week during US congressional hearings, he exposed how politicians have exploited the COVID-19 pandemic for their own personal advantage. Fauci showed screenshots of Senator Paul's website, which included the message “Fire Dr Fauci”. He pointed out that Paul was inviting people to send donations to firefauci.org. He explained how Paul's exaggerations were creating the conditions for violent attacks on himself and his family. In December, 2021, a man was arrested on his way to Washington, DC, with an AR-15 semiautomatic rifle in his car.

[World Report] Pig-heart transplantation surgeons look to the next steps

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
The experience of David Bennett, the first person to receive a genetically modified pig heart, will dictate the future of the approach. Talha Burki reports.

[World Report] Colombia euthanasia cases prompt regional debate

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
The assisted deaths of two people with non-terminal illnesses has ignited debate across Latin America. Joe Parkin Daniels reports from Bogotá.

[World Report] “I am disabled, it doesn’t mean I have no dignity”

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
In India, women with disabilities face significant barriers to accessing sexual and reproductive health care. Priti Salian reports from Bangalore.

[Perspectives] Shutdown and after

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
On March 9, 2020, neoliberalism hit the buffers. Put simply, the idea that small states and unbridled markets delivered the best societies was tested to destruction, dramatically so. As the COVID-19 pandemic surged, the stock market went into free fall. The bond market followed. The world's financial system was on a rollercoaster: US Treasury bonds were “lurching up and down in stomach-churning chasms”, to quote Adam Tooze. While global attention focused on the numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths and governments in the UK and the USA dithered over their response to this pandemic, the world's bankers and finance ministers were looking at the financial numbers.

[Perspectives] Jamal Rifi: family doctor building bridges in the community

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
During Australia's COVID-19 lockdown in 2021, family doctor Jamal Rifi came up with an unusual plan to encourage the remainder of his urban community of Sydney, NSW, Australia, to come forward for COVID-19 vaccination. “I realised we needed to build on our community advocacy work by using an inflatable vaccination facility that could be transported easily into the heart of urban communities that had become COVID-19 hotspots, such as my own suburb of Belmore in southwest Sydney”, Rifi explains. More recently, he has used the vaccination facility to help kick-start a COVID-19 booster programme, and from Jan 10, 2022, has also used it at a local bowling club to serve as a vaccination facility for children aged 5–11 years.

[Obituary] Sherif Ramzy Zaki

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
Leading US infectious disease pathologist. He was born in Alexandria, Egypt, on Nov 24, 1955 and died after a fall in Atlanta, GA, USA, on Nov 21, 2021 aged 65 years.

[Correspondence] Long COVID and self-management

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
People with COVID-19 often have symptoms in the long term (ie, long COVID), including fatigue, breathlessness, and neurocognitive difficulties.1 The disease mechanisms causing long COVID are unknown, and there are no evidence-based treatment options. Clinical guidelines focus on symptom management, and various treatment options are being evaluated.1 The scarcity of advice has often left people with long COVID feeling isolated and frustrated in their search for therapies.

[Correspondence] Intersectionality and developing evidence-based policy

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
It is reassuring to see that ministers in the UK are formally acknowledging how people from minority ethnic (ie, defined here as all ethnicities other than White British) backgrounds have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19. However, crucial gaps exist in the collection, analysis, and translation of data to assess the effects of multiple intersecting factors on individuals and communities. The Science and Technology Committee and Health and Social Care Committee report, Coronavirus: lessons learned to date,1 dedicates thirteen paragraphs to how ethnicity ties into disparities and makes five recommendations for how the government could avoid these inequities in the future.

[Correspondence] The COVID-19 response in Hong Kong

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
Richard Horton1 and the Editors2 have repeatedly called for closer collaborations in global health. China has been taking decisive, albeit difficult, measures to prevent and manage outbreaks in diverse settings, from city epicentres to rural clusters. Although these policies might be draconian, they resulted in community solidarity and success; with one prerequisite to both solidarity and success being transparency embraced by both the government and the health profession.

[Correspondence] Recognising Italy's mistakes in the public health response to COVID-19

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
The Day of the Dead in Italy this year was not only a time for remembrance but also for demanding justice for lives lost to COVID-19. On Nov 2, 2021, members of the #Sereni (also known as Serene and Always United) Association demonstrated in Rome against institutional omerta (ie, law of silence) and for the restoration of a parliamentary commission to examine the management of the epidemic. This event followed 520 complaints that were filed by the association 4 months earlier against the national government, the Ministry of Health, and Lombardy region administrators.

[Department of Error] Department of Error

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
Lingvay I, Sumithran P, Cohen RV, le Roux CW. Obesity management as a primary treatment goal for type 2 diabetes: time to reframe the conversation. Lancet 2022; 399: 394–405– In this Review, author Carel W le Roux's Declaration of interest has been corrected to read “CWlR reports grants from the Irish Research Council, Science Foundation Ireland, Anabio, and the Health Research Board. He serves on advisory boards of Novo Nordisk, Herbalife, GI Dynamics, Eli Lilly, Johnson & Johnson, Sanofi Aventis, AstraZeneca, Janssen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Glia, and Boehringer Ingelheim.

[Articles] Efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapy in children aged 1–3 years with peanut allergy (the Immune Tolerance Network IMPACT trial): a randomised placebo-controlled study

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
In children with a peanut allergy, initiation of peanut oral immunotherapy before age 4 years was associated with an increase in both desensitisation and remission. Development of remission correlated with immunological biomarkers. The outcomes suggest a window of opportunity at a young age for intervention to induce remission of peanut allergy.

[Articles] Lentiviral haematopoietic stem-cell gene therapy for early-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: long-term results from a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1/2 trial and expanded access

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
Treatment with arsa-cel resulted in sustained, clinically relevant benefits in children with early-onset MLD by preserving cognitive function and motor development in most patients, and slowing demyelination and brain atrophy.

[Articles] An educational programme in neonatal intensive care units (SEPREVEN): a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised controlled trial

The Lancet - Sa, 22/01/2022 - 00:00
A multiprofessional safety-promoting programme in NICUs reduced the rate of adverse events and severe and preventable adverse events in highly vulnerable patients. This programme could significantly improve care offered to critically ill neonates.
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