Riviste scientifiche

[Correspondence] Italy's first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has ended: no excess mortality in May, 2020

The Lancet - Ve, 04/09/2020 - 00:30
In response to the urgent need for data on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, the National Institute of Statistics, in collaboration with the Italian National Institute of Health, published preliminary data on the daily number of deaths in Italy from any cause occurring during the pandemic, up to May 31, 2020.1 The total number of deaths was obtained through integration of the Population Registers and the Tax Register, and these data were released for 7357 municipalities, with validated data from 7904 municipalities, covering 95% of the Italian resident population.

COVID-19 prevention and treatment: A critical analysis of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine clinical pharmacology

PLoS Medicine - Gi, 03/09/2020 - 23:00

by Nicholas J. White, James A. Watson, Richard M. Hoglund, Xin Hui S. Chan, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Joel Tarning

Nicholas White and coauthors discuss chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine pharmacology in the context of possible treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

SpaceX says tests show Starlink satellites deliver high-speed internet

New Scientist - Gi, 03/09/2020 - 22:59
SpaceX is testing the use of space lasers to transfer data between its Starlink satellites, which the firm says can provide internet connections fast enough for HD streaming

Trees and shrubs might reveal the location of decomposing bodies

New Scientist - Gi, 03/09/2020 - 19:54
Botanists are teaming up with forensic anthropologists to work out whether there are detectable changes in the appearance of trees and shrubs growing near decomposing bodies

Could Australia’s clash with Facebook over news articles go global?

New Scientist - Gi, 03/09/2020 - 19:41
In response to proposed laws requiring payment to news publishers, Facebook says it will ban Australian users sharing news content, which may be a test case for global regulation to follow

Covid-19 news: UK funding for trials of rapid new coronavirus tests

New Scientist - Gi, 03/09/2020 - 19:30
The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

Russian biologist still aims to make CRISPR babies despite the risks

New Scientist - Gi, 03/09/2020 - 18:17
Denis Rebrikov says he is planning to use CRISPR gene editing to prevent children inheriting deafness, despite a major report concluding it is not yet safe enough to try

Naked mole rats are nearly deaf because their ears can’t amplify sound

New Scientist - Gi, 03/09/2020 - 18:00
Scientists have discovered why naked mole rats have poor hearing and they suggest the finding could be used to understand and model some forms of human deafness

Aviation’s contribution to global warming has doubled since 2000

New Scientist - Gi, 03/09/2020 - 03:01
The rapid growth of the aviation industry is far outpacing efforts to reduce its contribution to climate change. Planes are now responsible for 3.5 per cent of global warming

Economic influences on population health in the United States: Toward policymaking driven by data and evidence

PLoS Medicine - Me, 02/09/2020 - 23:00

by Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Rourke O’Brien, Gregory L. Whitehorn, Alexander C. Tsai

Atheendar S. Venkataramani and colleagues discuss economic factors and population health in the United States.

Social capital, social cohesion, and health of Syrian refugee working children living in informal tented settlements in Lebanon: A cross-sectional study

PLoS Medicine - Me, 02/09/2020 - 23:00

by Rima. R. Habib, Amena El-Harakeh, Micheline Ziadee, Elio Abi Younes, Khalil El Asmar

Background

Since 2011, the protracted Syrian war has had tragic consequences on the lives of the Syrian people, threatening their stability, health, and well-being. The most vulnerable are children, who face interruption of schooling and child labor. This study explored the relationship between social capital and the physical health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children in rural areas of Lebanon.

Methods and findings

In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 4,090 Syrian refugee children working in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon in 2017. Children (8–18 years) gave direct testimony on their living and social environment in face-to-face interviews. Logistic regressions assessed the association of social capital and social cohesion with the health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children; specifically, poor self-rated health, reporting a health problem, engaging in risky health behavior, feeling lonely, feeling optimistic, and being satisfied with life. Of the 4,090 working children in the study, 11% reported poor health, 16% reported having a health problem, and 13% were engaged in risky behaviors. The majority (67.5%) reported feeling lonely, while around 53% were optimistic and 59% were satisfied with life. The study findings suggest that positive social capital constructs were associated with better health. Lower levels of social cohesion (e.g., not spending time with friends) were significantly associated with poor self-rated health, reporting a physical health problem, and feeling more lonely ([adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.4; CI 1.76–3.36, p < 0.001], [AOR, 1.9; CI 1.44–2.55, p < 0.001], and [AOR, 0.5; CI 0.38–0.76, p < 0.001], respectively). Higher levels of social support (e.g., having good social relations), family social capital (e.g., discussing personal issues with parents), and neighborhood attachment (e.g., having a close friend) were all significantly associated with being more optimistic ([AOR, 1.5; CI 1.2–1.75, p < 0.001], [AOR, 1.3; CI 1.11–1.52, p < 0.001], and [AOR, 1.9; CI 1.58–2.29, p < 0.001], respectively) and more satisfied with life ([AOR, 1.3; CI 1.01–1.54, p = 0.04], [AOR, 1.2; CI 1.01–1.4, p = 0.04], and [AOR, 1.3; CI 1.08–1.6, p = 0.006], respectively). The main limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, as well as other design issues (using self-reported health measures, using a questionnaire that was not subject to a validation study, and giving equal weighting to all the components of the health and emotional well-being indicators).

Conclusions

This study highlights the association between social capital, social cohesion, and refugee working children’s physical and emotional health. In spite of the poor living and working conditions that Syrian refugee children experience, having a close-knit network of family and friends was associated with better health. Interventions that consider social capital dimensions might contribute to improving the health of Syrian refugee children in informal tented settlements (ITSs).

Winter ice in the Bering Sea is doomed to disappear within decades

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 21:00
A study of winter sea ice in the Bering Sea over the past 5500 year suggests that all the ice will be lost within decades, with knock-on effects for the Arctic

Secure quantum communications network is the largest of its kind

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 21:00
A quantum communications network running on optical fibres in Bristol, UK, is the largest of its kind with eight users, but its creators say it could handle more than 100 people in future

Asphalt on roads may soon be greater source of air pollution than cars

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 21:00
A range of toxic carbon-based chemicals are released into the air from asphalt on hot or sunny days, and climate change could make the problem worse

E-cigarettes are no better than alternative aids to quit smoking

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 20:00
People who use e-cigarettes to help them stop smoking are no more likely to be abstinent a year later, and are more likely to remain dependent on nicotine, according to data from a large US study

Beautiful blooming phytoplankton create swirling art in the Baltic Sea

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 20:00
This image released by NASA's Earth Observatory shows a giant bloom created by phytoplankton off the Swedish coast

We are living in the middle of a fantastic Star Trek renaissance

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 20:00
Star Trek, which began in 1966, is experiencing an extraordinary renaissance in the year 2020. Is this a golden age for the show, asks Emily Wilson

Politicians can’t be afraid of U-turns if we want to keep schools open

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 20:00
In order to keep schools safe, governments must be prepared to shut down other areas of society to keep overall levels of virus transmission low

David Attenborough helps podcast bring climate crisis centre stage

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 20:00
So Hot Right Now podcast looks to David Attenborough and Ellie Goulding in bid to make climate crisis more real for millions and push it up the media agenda

We could soon make cars stop people driving while drunk or on drugs

New Scientist - Me, 02/09/2020 - 20:00
We are on the cusp of cars that automatically stop people driving while intoxicated. Embracing the technology will save lives, says Amie Hayley
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