Riviste scientifiche

Will a ban on snacking on public transport really help combat obesity?

New Scientist - Gi, 10/10/2019 - 18:38
A proposal to ban snacks on public transport has appeared in a UK government report. But it doesn't seem based on evidence, and the government won't discuss it

You probably score worse than monkeys on questions about the world

New Scientist - Gi, 10/10/2019 - 16:18
New Scientist readers are more knowledgeable than the general public and experts on the state of the world, but still score worse than monkeys would on some questions

Live: UK's first space rover, Tim Peake and the real life rocket man

New Scientist - Gi, 10/10/2019 - 15:07
We'll be live streaming several talks from New Scientist Live including British astronaut Tim Peake's question and answer session, the full announcement of SpaceBit's plans for the first British lunar rover and the real life rocket man Sam Rogers

Cold-blooded mammals roamed Earth for tens of millions of years

New Scientist - Gi, 10/10/2019 - 14:00
Two protomammals from the dinosaur era were still cold-blooded like their reptile ancestors, even though their skeletons and brains were mammal-like

[Comment] Protecting children's rights: why governments must be bold to tackle childhood obesity

The Lancet - Gi, 10/10/2019 - 13:42
The UK Chief Medical Officer's independent review of childhood obesity, Time to Solve Childhood Obesity, was published on Oct 10, 2019.1 In England the prevalence of childhood obesity is too high; about 20% of children aged 10–11 years are obese (≥95th centile on the UK90 growth charts).2 There is widespread public support for action with three “chapters” of an ambitious plan outlined by the UK Government.1,3–5 Now we need a focus on implementing solutions, and the independent review calls for bold action to improve children's health.

Deep-sea anglerfish may shed luminous bacteria into the ocean water

New Scientist - Gi, 10/10/2019 - 12:00
Bacteria in deep-sea anglerfish give the predators a luminescent glow – but despite being adapted to this lifestyle the microbes leave for the open water

Plans for UK's first moon rover announced at New Scientist Live

New Scientist - Gi, 10/10/2019 - 10:00
A UK-based space start-up is planning to send the smallest rover ever to the moon in 2021, and it will walk around on legs instead of rolling on wheels

Bees are better at counting if they are penalised for their mistakes

New Scientist - Gi, 10/10/2019 - 00:00
We had evidence that bees could count up to four. But it seems they can go further - if prompted with both rewards for correct answers and penalties for errors

Psychiatric morbidity and suicidal behaviour in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

PLoS Medicine - Me, 09/10/2019 - 23:00

by Duleeka Knipe, A. Jess Williams, Stephanie Hannam-Swain, Stephanie Upton, Katherine Brown, Piumee Bandara, Shu-Sen Chang, Nav Kapur

Background

Psychiatric disorders are reported to be present in 80% to 90% of suicide deaths in high-income countries (HIC), but this association is less clear in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). There has been no previous systematic review of this issue in LMIC. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in individuals with suicidal behaviour in LMIC.

Methods and findings

PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE searches were conducted to identify quantitative research papers (any language) between 1990 and 2018 from LMIC that reported on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in suicidal behaviour. We used meta-analytic techniques to generate pooled estimates for any psychiatric disorder and specific diagnosis based on International classification of disease (ICD-10) criteria. A total of 112 studies (154 papers) from 26 LMIC (India: 25%, China: 15%, and other LMIC: 60%) were identified, including 18 non-English articles. They included 30,030 individuals with nonfatal suicidal behaviour and 4,996 individuals who had died by suicide. Of the 15 studies (5 LMIC) that scored highly on our quality assessment, prevalence estimates for psychiatric disorders ranged between 30% and 80% in suicide deaths and between 3% and 86% in those who engaged in nonfatal suicidal behaviour. There was substantial heterogeneity between study estimates. Fifty-eight percent (95% CI 46%–71%) of those who died by suicide and 45% (95% CI 30%–61%) of those who engaged in nonfatal suicidal behaviour had a psychiatric disorder. The most prevalent disorder in both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviour was mood disorder (25% and 21%, respectively). Schizophrenia and related disorders were identified in 8% (4%–12%) of those who died by suicide and 7% (3%–11%) of those who engaged in nonfatal suicidal behaviour. In nonfatal suicidal behaviour, anxiety disorders, and substance misuse were identified in 19% (1%–36%) and 11% (7%–16%) of individuals, respectively. This systematic review was limited by the low number of high-quality studies and restricting our searches to databases that mainly indexed English language journals.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest a possible lower prevalence of psychiatric disorders in suicidal behaviour in LMIC. We found very few high-quality studies and high levels of heterogeneity in pooled estimates of psychiatric disorder, which could reflect differing study methods or real differences. There is a clear need for more robust evidence in order for LMIC to strike the right balance between community-based and mental health focussed interventions.

Return of warm water 'blob' in the Pacific threatens marine life

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 20:14
The reappearance of a vast blob of abnormally warm water in the Pacific, around seven times the size of Alaska, has raised the prospect of impacts on marine ecosystems and weather systems  

Ancient humans planned ahead and stored bones to eat the marrow later

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 20:00
Patterns of markings from skinning preserved bones are the first evidence that humans living 200,000 to 400,000 years ago stored food to eat later

Mini organs grown from tumour cells can help us choose the best chemo

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 20:00
Miniature clumps of cells grown from a person's tumour biopsy can be used to test different cancer treatments so medics can decide which one is best for the individual

Some corals ‘killed’ by climate change are now returning to life

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 20:00
Warm water can leave corals looking dead – but in some cases polyps still survive deep in the coral skeleton and in time they can return the coral to life

Chronic Lyme disease may be a misdiagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 19:04
People who think they have a long-lasting form of Lyme disease are taking antibiotics for many months and may be treating the wrong disease

Maggie Aderin-Pocock on space travel and humanity's future

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 19:00
Space scientist and presenter Maggie Aderin-Pocock sees our future in space, even though it will take thousands of years to reach neighbouring solar systems

Netflix's Criminal strips police drama down to its raw psychology

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 19:00
The laboratory-like setting of new Netflix show Criminal provides the perfect foil for stories that focus with clinical precision on the mind, says Chelsea Whyte

Trevor Paglen exhibition highlights how prejudice is tainting AI

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 19:00
The epic expanse of photos in a new show at London’s Barbican Centre reveals a human side to artificial intelligence – and it isn’t pretty

Want to regrow organs and defy cancer? Just copy these awesome animals

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 19:00
Creatures with incredible superpowers including the ability to survive being frozen and suffocated and resist ageing could revolutionise medicine, space travel and even war

Born in the big bang: How ancient black holes could save cosmology

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 19:00
Exotic primordial black holes born in the moments after the universe began could be the key to solving some of cosmology’s biggest problems… if only we can find them.

If we label eco-anxiety as an illness, climate denialists have won

New Scientist - Me, 09/10/2019 - 19:00
The UK media reports a “tsunami” of cases of eco-anxiety in children. It is no medical condition, though, it is a rational response to the state of the climate, says Graham Lawton
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