Riviste scientifiche

Renewables overtook fossil fuels in UK electricity mix for first time

New Scientist - Lu, 14/10/2019 - 01:01
Wind farms, solar panels and biomass have outcompeted gas and coal power stations for the first time ever over a whole quarter, in a significant milestone

Cannabis extract may work as a treatment for cannabis addiction

New Scientist - Do, 13/10/2019 - 14:47
An extract from cannabis called cannabidiol or CBD helped some people who were addicted to smoking the drug quit

These New Scientist-inspired Twitter bots are surrealist art

New Scientist - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 15:33
Bots on social media get a bad rap, but they can be used for good and for art, like in these three headline bots revealed at New Scientist Live

Your heartbeat may shape how likely you are to have a car crash

New Scientist - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 13:49
A virtual reality driving game suggests that drivers’ reaction times are slower if they encounter an obstacle at the same time as a heartbeat

Data trial identifies vulnerable children who may otherwise be missed

New Scientist - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 13:14
A trial using data to prevent child abuse helped a UK police force drastically cut the time it takes child protection experts to review cases

[Editorial] E-cigarettes: time to realign our approach?

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
A multistate, US outbreak of lung injury associated with e-cigarette use has affected at least 1080 people and caused 18 deaths as of Oct 1, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This number looks set to grow as more cases are discovered and reported. 80% of the patients affected are younger than 35 years, and all report using e-cigarettes, many with tetrahydrocannabinol. The specific exposure is unknown, with no single product or substance associated with the outbreak.

[Editorial] National health care in Portugal: a new opportunity

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
On Sept 15, Portugal celebrated the 40th anniversary of its national health system. Since its creation, there has been impressive progress in Portugal's health indicators. Infant mortality per 1000 livebirths decreased from 3·3 in 2006 to 2·9 in 2017, and life expectancy of men and women increased by more than 4 years over the same period to 81·3 years (longer than the EU average). However, the tide is changing and after the economic crisis, cuts in public expenditure have introduced new challenges.

[Editorial] Bringing frailty into all realms of medicine

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
Although the concept of frailty has been recognised for centuries, it wasn't until 2001 that a landmark attempt was made to standardise the definition of frailty, via a description of the condition's core clinical presentations. Characterised by a reduction in functioning across multiple physiological systems, which heightens an individual's vulnerability to stressors, the prevalence of frailty has increased in recent years largely because of population ageing. To recognise this growing burden, this week, The Lancet publishes a two-paper Series focusing on the identification, management, and prevention of frailty.

[Comment] Medicalising policy problems: the mental health needs of unaccompanied migrant young people

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
Children migrating alone have become a global phenomenon, with more than 300 000 unaccompanied children identified across 80 countries in 2016.1 The number of applications for asylum from unaccompanied children and young people arriving in the UK varies each year, but in 2018 there were 2872 such applications.2 Many more applications are made in other countries in Europe,3 while an unknown number of unaccompanied children arrive without ever making an asylum claim.4 Research has shown the adverse impacts of migration on the mental health of children and young people5,6 and the difficulties in identifying and appropriately responding to their mental health needs.

[Comment] Offline: Touch—the first language

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
Why don't doctors touch patients anymore? Having had the privilege of attending clinics in the UK's National Health Service almost every week since March this year, I can honestly say that at no stage has any physician, surgeon, or anaesthetist ever completed anything approaching a physical examination. (Even taking a history by a doctor has been an astonishingly cursory exercise. Nurses are more thorough, albeit by using a checklist.) These observations are not meant to be criticisms. You might fairly argue that since my “presenting complaint” did not concern the heart, lungs, abdomen, or neurological system a full physical examination was unnecessary.

[World Report] AMR in the Middle East: “a perfect storm”

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance in parts of the Middle East is being exacerbated by a lack of laboratory capacity, antimicrobial stewardship, and good data. Sharmila Devi reports.

[Perspectives] Liu Bolin: artist for the Anthropocene

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
At a time when so much of the world's attention is focused on China's rise, global imprint, and intent, it's heartening to encounter Liu Bolin's art, with its critical but playful invitation to experience realities within China. Part of Australia's Ballarat International Foto Biennale, Liu's Camouflage is his first Australian exhibition. Liu, a Chinese artist from Shandong province, trained as a sculptor. His signature style is to paint and then painstakingly superimpose his body on backdrops and landscapes such that he or his subjects are virtually hidden.

[Perspectives] What we see, and what we know to be true

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
“To photograph people is to violate them, by seeing them as they never see themselves, by having knowledge of them they can never have; it turns people into objects that can be symbolically possessed.” Deborah Levy quotes Susan Sontag as she begins her novel The Man Who Saw Everything. What do we see and what do we remember? What is based on facts, and where do facts reside? Before reading her latest novel, I already knew that I admired Levy. Hot Milk shape shifted between a mother with an unexplained illness and her daughter who takes her to a doctor of last resort.

[Perspectives] Mary Herbert: solving the puzzles of reproductive biology

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
There is something very down to earth about Mary Herbert, Professor of Reproductive Biology at Newcastle University, UK. Her work aims to provide seamless transition between laboratory research and clinical services. “At heart I'm a scientist, in charge of a lab, and trying to help solve the major puzzles of human reproductive biology”, she says. As lead scientist at the in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) laboratory of Newcastle Fertility Centre and as principal investigator in the Wellcome Centre for Mitochondrial Research at Newcastle University's Medical School, Herbert steers two substantial areas of research around the prevention of mitochondrial disease and trying to better understand the chromosomal abnormalities that arise from female reproductive ageing.

[Perspectives] Admissions

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
Somewhere in the back of my garage, amid the cobwebs and the mouse droppings, the clunky old computers I've been meaning to recycle, and the wobbly old dresser I ought to have repaired, sits a carton containing my application for admission to medical school. I am not tempted to brave the dust and clutter and retrieve this decades-old document. I don't have to. I remember exactly what I wrote in it—and that I lied.

[Obituary] Stuart B Levy

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
Physician who urged prudent use of antibiotics. Born on Nov 21, 1938, in Wilmington, DE, USA, he died on Sept 4, 2019, in Boston, MA, USA, from complications of Parkinson's disease, aged 80 years.

[Correspondence] Hyaluronan-selected sperm should not be considered an add-on

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
In HABSelect,1 David Miller and colleagues compared intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the conventional microinjection method to fertilise human oocytes,2 with a refinement of this technique called physiological ICSI that is based on the microinjection of sperm selected for their capacity to bind hyaluronan (HA-ICSI).3 Hyaluronan-selected sperm have reduced levels of DNA damage and aneuploidy.3 The use of physiological ICSI has been shown to reduce the proportion of pregnancies that end in miscarriage.

[Correspondence] Hyaluronan-selected sperm should not be considered an add-on – Author's reply

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
The clinical outcomes of the HABSelect trial1 indicated that physiological intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a form of hyaluronan sperm-selection, could not be recommended for general use. Lodovico Parmegiani, not unreasonably, asks that in view of several reports2–4 of a significant decrease in miscarriage in cohorts in which hyaluronan-selected sperm were used, why should it only be considered as an add-on to treatment? The answer lies in the primary question the HABSelect trial1 was designed to answer, which was: can physiological ICSI improve livebirth rates compared with standard ICSI? All other outcomes were a secondary consideration.

[Correspondence] Insulin dosing guidance to optimise type 2 diabetes management

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
I read with interest about automated insulin dosing guidance to optimise insulin management in patients with type 2 diabetes.1 Richard M Bergenstal and colleagues show a highly impressive reduction of 1% in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration in the intervention group compared with 0·3% reduction in HbA1c in the control group. However, I have doubts about its reproducibility in clinical practice. The control group seems to have received negligible clinical care from their health-care providers.

[Correspondence] Insulin dosing guidance to optimise type 2 diabetes management – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sa, 12/10/2019 - 00:00
We thank Rajesh Garg for his thoughtful Correspondence and we agree that frequent titration of insulin on the basis of glucose patterns facilitates significant reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) while preserving treatment safety. Indeed, the patients in the control group were contacted by the study team seven times in 6 months, during which insulin titrations were allowed. Yet, increased contact with patients without an automated process of glucose pattern analysis, insulin titration, and dose implementation does not lead to substantial alterations in care.
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