Riviste scientifiche

At work, school and seeing friends: How to lower your coronavirus risk

New Scientist - Me, 27/05/2020 - 15:06
Many countries are relaxing coronavirus restrictions. If you’ve been asked to return to work or school, how can you reduce the risk of infection to yourself and your family?

Neanderthal DNA linked to higher fertility in modern humans

New Scientist - Me, 27/05/2020 - 14:00
Some people carry a chunk of Neanderthal DNA that appears to reduce the chance of miscarriage and increase fertility

SpaceX to make history launching NASA astronauts on a private rocket

New Scientist - Me, 27/05/2020 - 13:12
On 27 May, NASA astronauts will launch to the International Space Station aboard a SpaceX Crew Dragon, the first time a private company has flown humans into orbit

Coronavirus seems to reach the brain. What could this mean for us?

New Scientist - Me, 27/05/2020 - 08:00
From loss of smell to stroke, people with covid-19 are reporting strange neurological issues that challenge our understanding of the disease – and how to treat it

Impact of macronutrient supplements on later growth of children born preterm or small for gestational age: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised and quasirandomised controlled trials

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 26/05/2020 - 23:00

by Luling Lin, Emma Amissah, Gregory D. Gamble, Caroline A. Crowther, Jane E. Harding

Background

Nutritional supplements may improve short-term growth of infants born small (preterm or small for gestational age), but there are few data on long-term effects and concerns that body composition may be adversely affected. Effects also may differ between girls and boys. Our systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of macronutrient supplements for infants born small on later growth.

Methods and findings

We searched OvidMedline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to January 30, 2020, and controlled-trials.com, clinicaltrials.gov, and anzctr.org.au on January 30, 2020. Randomised or quasirandomised trials were included if the intention was to increase macronutrient intake to improve growth or development of infants born small and growth was assessed after discharge. Primary outcome was body mass index (BMI) in childhood. Data were pooled using random-effect models. Outcomes were evaluated in toddlers (< 3 years), childhood (3 to 8 years), adolescence (9 to 18 years), and adulthood (>18 years). Forty randomised and 2 quasirandomised trials of variable methodological quality with 4,352 infants were included. Supplementation did not alter BMI in childhood (7 trials, 1,136 children; mean difference [MD] −0.10 kg/m2, [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.37 to 0.16], p = 0.45). In toddlers, supplementation increased weight (31 trials, 2,924 toddlers; MD 0.16 kg, [0.01 to 0.30], p = 0.03) and length/height (30 trials, 2,889 toddlers; MD 0.44 cm, [0.10 to 0.77], p = 0.01), but not head circumference (29 trials, 2,797 toddlers; MD 0.15 cm, [−0.03 to 0.33], p = 0.10). In childhood, there were no significant differences between groups in height (7 trials, 1,136 children; MD 0.22 cm, [−0.48 to 0.92], p = 0.54) or lean mass (3 trials, 354 children; MD −0.07 kg, [−0.98 to 0.85], p = 0.88), although supplemented children appeared to have higher fat mass (2 trials, 201 children; MD 0.79 kg, [0.19 to 1.38], p = 0.01). In adolescence, there were no significant differences between groups in BMI (2 trials, 216 adolescents; MD −0.48 kg/m2, [−2.05 to 1.08], p = 0.60), height (2 trials, 216 adolescents; MD −0.55 cm, [−2.95 to 1.86], p = 0.65), or fat mass (2 trials, 216 adolescents; MD −1.3 5 kg, [−5.76 to 3.06], p = 0.55). In adulthood, there also were no significant differences between groups in weight z-score (2 trials, 199 adults; MD −0.11, [−0.72 to 0.50], p = 0.73) and height z-score (2 trials, 199 adults; MD −0.07, [−0.36 to 0.22], p = 0.62). In subgroup analysis, supplementation was associated with increased length/height in toddler boys (2 trials, 173 boys; MD 1.66 cm, [0.75 to 2.58], p = 0.0003), but not girls (2 trials, 159 girls; MD 0.15 cm, [−0.71 to 1.01], p = 0.74). Limitations include considerable unexplained heterogeneity, low to very low quality of evidence, and possible bias due to low or unbalanced followup.

Conclusions

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we found no evidence that early macronutrient supplementation for infants born small altered BMI in childhood. Although supplements appeared to increase weight and length in toddlers, effects were inconsistent and unlikely to be clinically significant. Limited data suggested that supplementation increased fat mass in childhood, but these effects did not persist in later life.PROSPERO registration: CRD42019126918.

Poll reveals declining trust in UK government before Cummings crisis

New Scientist - Ma, 26/05/2020 - 19:30
The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

UK plans to further ease lockdown as new case rate remains high

New Scientist - Ma, 26/05/2020 - 18:09
Despite the UK having far more new daily coronavirus cases than many other countries, further restrictions are expected to be lifted in England and Scotland

Asteroid that killed the dinosaurs hit just right for maximum damage

New Scientist - Ma, 26/05/2020 - 18:00
The asteroid impact that formed Chicxulub crater and is linked to the extinction of the dinosaurs seems to have come in at the optimal angle to cause as much destruction as possible

Space Force review: The sitcom is almost as comical as the real thing

New Scientist - Ma, 26/05/2020 - 10:01
The newly created US Space Force has provided a lot of laughs since its inception. A TV satire about it is almost as funny as the original, says Simon Ings

The sun may have formed because a small galaxy passed by the Milky Way

New Scientist - Lu, 25/05/2020 - 18:00
A small galaxy called Sagittarius passed close to the Milky Way four times in the past 6 billion years, which may have caused periods of intense star formation

Behavioural science advisers express concern over Cummings crisis

New Scientist - Lu, 25/05/2020 - 16:51
Leading behavioural scientists have expressed concern that the Dominic Cummings scandal could encourage people to disregard the UK’s coronavirus restrictions

A blood test could reveal how quickly or slowly you are ageing

New Scientist - Lu, 25/05/2020 - 08:00
A blood test that measures changes in gene expression to estimate a person's age can also help predict whether a person is more likely to develop a chronic disease

[Editorial] The plight of essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic

The Lancet - Sa, 23/05/2020 - 00:00
The COVID-19 pandemic has vividly highlighted how much society depends upon essential workers. Praise for the heroic work being done by health-care workers to save lives worldwide in dangerous, exhausting conditions is everywhere. But those same workers are often left unprotected by governments and systems that have failed to supply them with enough personal protective equipment (PPE), supplies, and resources to do their jobs. In April alone, there were an estimated 27 COVID-19-related health worker deaths in the USA, 106 in the UK, and 180 in Russia, with tens of thousands of infections.

[Comment] Kidney transplantation: a safe step forward for regulatory immune cell therapy

The Lancet - Sa, 23/05/2020 - 00:00
On the basis of promising animal studies and following the translational path of immune cell therapy in oncology,1 the field of organ transplantation has begun preliminary investigations of infusing regulatory immune cells into graft recipients. These early trials aim to reduce patients' immunosuppressive drug burden and promote drug-free transplant tolerance. The ONE Study was established in 2011 as a multicentre collaborative effort (centres in France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the USA) to compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of regulatory cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) when combined with reduced immunosuppressive treatment in low-risk, living-donor kidney recipients.

[Comment] Offline: Health in the unhappy time of COVID-19

The Lancet - Sa, 23/05/2020 - 00:00
It was a tragedy for anyone hoping to see COVID-19 become a catalyst for international solidarity. On the first day of the first-ever virtual World Health Assembly, held during the worst acute global health crisis since WHO's creation in 1948, Alex Azar, US Secretary of Health and Human Services, further damaged the credibility of the US Government as a constructive member of the international community. “We must be frank”, he began. What followed was an astonishing series of unsubstantiated allegations.

[World Report] Mexican President López Obrador draws doctors' ire

The Lancet - Sa, 23/05/2020 - 00:00
President López Obrador later apologised after his comments were denounced by Mexican medical associations amid the COVID-19 pandemic. David Agren reports from Mexico City.

[World Report] England and Wales see 20 000 excess deaths in care homes

The Lancet - Sa, 23/05/2020 - 00:00
PPE shortages, lack of testing, and a vulnerable population have seen care homes in England and Wales become hotspots of the COVID-19 epidemic. Talha Burki reports.

[Perspectives] Helena Legido-Quigley: proponent of health systems strengthening

The Lancet - Sa, 23/05/2020 - 00:00
As Associate Professor in Health Systems at Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health at the National University of Singapore, Helena Legido-Quigley was able to observe at first-hand how the country responded to its first COVID-19 outbreak earlier this year. “It was striking how well Singapore was prepared, a legacy from the SARS era, with a dedicated infectious diseases hospital and 6 months of supplies of personal protective equipment and ventilators. The public health response was fast and efficient with good governance and effective health-risk communication”, she says.

[Perspectives] Stereotype threat

The Lancet - Sa, 23/05/2020 - 00:00
Among the disturbing statistics to have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic has been the disproportionate impact in terms of death and severe illness on ethnic minorities in the UK and the USA. On April 7, 2020, it was reported that in the US city of Chicago, where the black population is roughly 30%, nearly 70% of COVID-19 deaths were in this demographic. A report released by the UK Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre on April 17, 2020, showed that 34% of patients in the UK receiving advanced respiratory support were non-white, despite the non-white population nationally being about 14%.

[Obituary] Robert McCredie May

The Lancet - Sa, 23/05/2020 - 00:00
Physicist turned ecologist and UK Chief Scientific Adviser. He was born in Sydney, NSW, Australia, on Jan 8, 1936, and died of pneumonia in Oxford, UK, on April 28, 2020, aged 84 years.
Condividi contenuti