Riviste scientifiche

Give forests to local people to preserve them

New Scientist - %age fa
The best way to protect forests, and the carbon they contain that could otherwise cause global warming, is to hand them over to local communities






Quantum split: Particle this way, properties that way

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 21:00
Can you separate a bell from its ring? You can in the quantum world – the Cheshire cat experiment has shown neutrons splitting from their spins (full text available to subscribers)






Oxygen oasis for early life found in ancient rock

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 20:00
A 2-billion-year-old rock has revealed the first evidence of the isolated pockets where oxygen-breathing life may have evolved

Baxter the robot brings his gentle touch to novel jobs

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 19:30
A robot designed to work alongside humans in factories is finding a range of unusual alternative applications – from treating patients to farming in space






An easier way to turn plant scraps to plastics

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 19:05
A new way of turning vegetable waste directly into bioplastics could make such materials even more environmentally friendly






Worm neuron hack to probe the mysteries of our brains

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 19:00
Hijacking how neurons of nematode worms are wired is the first step in an approach that could revolutionise our understanding of brains and consciousness






Today on New Scientist

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 18:30
All the latest on newscientist.com: turning CO2 to stone, one woman and her hawk, alcohol sharpens smell, liquid computers and more






Tragic cruise ship Concordia makes its final journey

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 17:58
After the world's most expensive salvage operation, the ill-fated Costa Concordia is being floated back to Genoa, where it will be chopped up for scrap metal






Kinect projector guides people up a climbing wall

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 17:18
Smart projector plots glowing climbing routes onto a wall and tracks the movement of climbers as they follow it, suggesting the next move as they go






Liquid bits could brim with data in future computers

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 16:42
A future form of computing could see information stored on clusters of microscopic particles suspended in liquid






Threatwatch: Chikungunya virus hits the US and Europe

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 15:00
Locally acquired cases of chikungunya virus have been identified in the US for the first time, while cases soar in Europe and Central America






Zoologger: Moose dribble turns off grass's toxic defences

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 14:13
The grasses that moose eat contain fungi that make powerful toxins, but the animals' saliva somehow turns off this defence response






Brazil to unleash GM-mosquito swarms to fight dengue

New Scientist - Me, 23/07/2014 - 11:34
Modified mozzies will be raised and released on a commercial scale for the first time, but critics warn that this biotech has not been sufficiently tested






Mortality after Parental Death in Childhood: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 22/07/2014 - 23:00

by Jiong Li, Mogens Vestergaard, Sven Cnattingius, Mika Gissler, Bodil Hammer Bech, Carsten Obel, Jørn Olsen

Background

Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood.

Methods and Findings

This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n = 2,789,807) and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,380,301), and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,131,905). A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR). Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.43–1.58). The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.71–2.00) than parental natural death (MRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.24–1.41). The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment.

Conclusions

Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies.Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Association of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 22/07/2014 - 23:00

by Giovanni Musso, Roberto Gambino, James H. Tabibian, Mattias Ekstedt, Stergios Kechagias, Masahide Hamaguchi, Rolf Hultcrantz, Hannes Hagström, Seung Kew Yoon, Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya, Jacob George, Francisco Barrera, Svanhildur Hafliðadóttir, Einar Stefan Björnsson, Matthew J. Armstrong, Laurence J. Hopkins, Xin Gao, Sven Francque, An Verrijken, Yusuf Yilmaz, Keith D. Lindor, Michael Charlton, Robin Haring, Markus M. Lerch, Rainer Rettig, Henry Völzke, Seungho Ryu, Guolin Li, Linda L. Wong, Mariana Machado, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Kohichiroh Yasui, Maurizio Cassader

Background

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent, under-recognized condition and a risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence connects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to CKD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether the presence and severity of NAFLD are associated with the presence and severity of CKD.

Methods and Findings

English and non-English articles from international online databases from 1980 through January 31, 2014 were searched. Observational studies assessing NAFLD by histology, imaging, or biochemistry and defining CKD as either estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria were included. Two reviewers extracted studies independently and in duplicate. Individual participant data (IPD) were solicited from all selected studies. Studies providing IPD were combined with studies providing only aggregate data with the two-stage method. Main outcomes were pooled using random-effects models. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to explore sources of heterogeneity and the effect of potential confounders. The influences of age, whole-body/abdominal obesity, homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and duration of follow-up on effect estimates were assessed by meta-regression. Thirty-three studies (63,902 participants, 16 population-based and 17 hospital-based, 20 cross-sectional, and 13 longitudinal) were included. For 20 studies (61% of included studies, 11 cross-sectional and nine longitudinal, 29,282 participants), we obtained IPD. NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of prevalent (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% CI 1.69–2.66) and incident (hazard ratio [HR] 1.79, 95% CI 1.65–1.95) CKD. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was associated with a higher prevalence (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.58–4.05) and incidence (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.42–3.17) of CKD than simple steatosis. Advanced fibrosis was associated with a higher prevalence (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3.14–8.61) and incidence (HR 3.29, 95% CI 2.30–4.71) of CKD than non-advanced fibrosis. In all analyses, the magnitude and direction of effects remained unaffected by diabetes status, after adjustment for other risk factors, and in other subgroup and meta-regression analyses. In cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, the severity of NAFLD was positively associated with CKD stages. Limitations of analysis are the relatively small size of studies utilizing liver histology and the suboptimal sensitivity of ultrasound and biochemistry for NAFLD detection in population-based studies.

Conclusion

The presence and severity of NAFLD are associated with an increased risk and severity of CKD.Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

We've locked up carbon dioxide by turning it to stone

New Scientist - Ma, 22/07/2014 - 21:00
How can we get rid of excess CO2? Geologist Juerg Matter knows how to stash it in rock so it can't leak out again – the next step is to go big (full text available to subscribers)






A bird in the hand: The tale of one woman and her hawk

New Scientist - Ma, 22/07/2014 - 20:00
This pulse-quickening story of a woman's obsession with training a female goshawk makes H is for Hawk a modern classic in a nature-writing renaissance






Alcohol improves your sense of smell - in moderation

New Scientist - Ma, 22/07/2014 - 19:04
Low levels of alcohol can improve your ability to discriminate between different odours, but be warned, the effect is reversed if you drink too much






Today on New Scientist

New Scientist - Ma, 22/07/2014 - 18:30
All the latest on newscientist.com: seaweed farms of the future, cyclist in drag act, PTSD for Gaza's children, archaeology of human networks, and more






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