Riviste scientifiche

Funding crisis threatens crucial UK ocean monitoring project

New Scientist - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 10:00
The array of moorings monitoring a weakening in the Atlantic conveyor belt risk being left in the lurch when funding expires in 2020, leaving key questions about the climate unanswered

Scientists have finally worked out what screaming sounds like

New Scientist - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 10:00
Can you tell the difference between a scream and a whistle? Most people consider rough, high-pitched noises a scream – and 70 per cent were tricked by a whistle

[Editorial] Reducing the risk of dementia

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Dementia is one of the fastest growing public health problems. According to data from the 2016 Global Burden of Disease Study, the number of people living with dementia worldwide more than doubled from 20·2 million in 1990, to 43·8 million in 2016. This number is expected to double again by 2030, with the steepest rises in low-income and middle-income countries where the effects of rapid population ageing are driving the increase in dementia. The 2015 World Alzheimer Report estimated that the annual global cost of dementia was more than US$800 billion, more than 85% of which relates to family and social costs rather than medical care.

[Editorial] Centring the invisible mother

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
The USA had an average pregnancy-related mortality (PRM) of 17·2 per 100 000 livebirths between 2011–15, according to a report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Released May 7, the report found that approximately 700 women in the USA die each year because of pregnancy-related conditions, and 60% of maternal deaths were preventable if “one or more reasonable changes” had occurred. Causes of death varied by time prepartum and postpartum, but the most common were cardiovascular conditions.

[Editorial] Smoke and mirrors: new tobacco products and Formula 1

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Clear links between Formula 1 and smoking were rightly confined to history decades ago. However, it now appears that connections are developing once more. British American Tobacco (BAT) joined with McLaren in February to advertise several products including a so-called heat-not-burn, tobacco-containing device—a hybrid of the e-cigarette and the traditional cigarette. Under the branding “A Better Tomorrow”, the union is about “transforming [the] tobacco agenda, at the heart of our portfolio of potentially reduced risk products”, BAT told The Lancet on May 8.

[Comment] WHO takes action to promote the health of refugees and migrants

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Migration is a defining issue of our time.1 There are 1 billion migrants globally, of whom 258 million have crossed borders.2 Climate change and political instability propel ever-greater displacement, with major detriments to health.3 Policies that fail to prevent human trafficking or guarantee essential services to migrants undermine universal health coverage (UHC) and the global pledge in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to “leave no one behind”. The World Health Assembly (WHA) on May 20–28, 2019, should adopt, and robustly implement, WHO's Global Action Plan on Promoting the Health of Refugees and Migrants, 2019–2013 (GAP).

[Comment] The Lancet Commission on diagnostics: advancing equitable access to diagnostics

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
For too long, the crucial role of diagnostics as a foundation of effective and high-quality health care has been neglected. Due to poor access, people in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and those among low-income groups in high-income countries have frequently received treatment that is initiated without the support of essential diagnostic tests. All too often, such presumptive treatment leads to poor health outcomes, wastes scarce resources on wrong treatments, fails to develop accurate epidemiological data, and contributes to development of antimicrobial resistance.

[Comment] Offline: The fight for Europe

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
What does Europe stand for? This question hangs ominously over forthcoming elections to the European Parliament, which will take place on May 23–26, 2019. Europe confronts monumental challenges: economic stagnation, inequality, unemployment, a climate emergency, and erosion of democratic values. Elites are mistrusted, even hated, by millions of voters who feel ignored and reviled by Brussels. Europe has lost its way. As Time Magazine recently put it, Europe is “unravelling”. The influential German sociologist, Wolfgang Streeck, has called Europe a “doomed empire”.

[World Report] Denver votes to decriminalise psilocybin mushrooms

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
A provisional result from a local ballot means so-called magic mushrooms use could be decriminalised in Denver, raising questions for research and commercial use. Paul Webster reports.

[World Report] Turkish doctors sentenced to jail for statement on war

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Doctors who called war a “man-made public health problem” receive jail sentences, in the latest government-led assault on the Turkish Medical Association. Sharmila Devi reports.

[World Report] Low-cost pneumonia vaccine breaks into global market

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Pneumococcal vaccination could become less costly for Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance, as a new, cheaper, alternative hits the market. Ann Danaiya Usher reports.

[Perspectives] Of journeys less known: outlawed love and sex in India

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
When I was seeking out queer culture as a young gay person in pre-internet times, the only written accounts of queer lives I found were of gay white men from western countries, such as Edmund White, Paul Monette, Quentin Crisp, and Andrew Tobias. All superb and vital reading, yet somewhat alien to my Indian context. I'd have appreciated reading Siddharth Dube's An Indefinite Sentence: A Personal History of Outlawed Love and Sex back then. Dube's rich memoir traces many issues, including his coming of age as a gay man who wrestled with and discovered his sexuality in an urban, westernised, upper-middle-class Indian context, suppressing his effeminacy in the face of phobic acquaintances, the excruciating viciousness of dorm life in an all-male boarding school, and the experience of loneliness and helplessness as a young gay person, despite his privileged background.

[Perspectives] Kameron Matthews: reaching underserved patient populations

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Family physician Kameron Matthews remembers meeting a college freshman with a passion for science and a near-perfect grade-point average to prove it. They met a few years ago during one of the campus bus tours Matthews organised to inspire students of colour to enter the health professions. The student's college adviser had discouraged her from becoming a doctor. “She didn't understand why”, said Matthews, who is Deputy Undersecretary for the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) Office of Community Care in Washington, DC, USA.

[Perspectives] Adolescence and mental health

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Adolescence is a time of change: changes to hormones and the body, changes in the social environment, and changes to the brain and the mind. Although most young people develop into healthy adults, adolescence confers vulnerability to mental health problems. Many mental illnesses, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance use disorders, and psychosis, first appear before the age of 24 years. What is it about adolescence that increases vulnerability to mental health problems? This is a crucial question because some mental illnesses that start in adolescence persist throughout adult life, creating long-term morbidity and a substantial burden on society.

[Obituary] Sydney Brenner

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Key player in the development of molecular biology and genetics. He was born in Germiston, South Africa, on Jan 13, 1927, and died in Singapore on April 5, 2019, aged 92 years.

[Correspondence] The measles crisis in Europe—the need for a joined-up approach

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Measles elimination in Europe is in crisis. More than 80 000 confirmed cases were reported in 2018 in the 53 countries in the WHO European Region,1 the highest figure for 20 years. 14 countries in the region reported more than 500 confirmed cases, including four countries that were previously deemed to have eliminated measles (Greece, Albania, Israel, and the UK), meaning interrupted transmission for 3 years. New strategies are urgently needed to put measles elimination in Europe back on track.

[Correspondence] Post-surgery mortality in Poland

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
In 2012, The Lancet published the results of a 7 day cohort study on mortality after surgery in Europe (Sept 22, 2012, p 1059).1 The Article contained information that was inappropriately used in Poland to promote a film, Botoks, which was watched by more than 2 million people. I am concerned that these data could still be used in similar ways.

[Correspondence] Post-surgery mortality in Poland – Author's reply

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
Stanislaw Krawczyk refers to the director Patryk Vega and his film Botoks, which provides a fictional account of the experiences of individuals receiving health care in Poland. The film, which has been widely viewed, caused outrage among health-care workers in Poland, who are depicted in an extremely negative way, perhaps the most striking example being the serious sexual assault of a patient by a member of hospital staff. The film is provocative to say the least, and some consider it deliberately misleading.

[Correspondence] Rheumatoid arthritis-associated bronchiectasis

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
We read with great interest the comprehensive review of diffuse bronchiectasis by Patrick Flume and colleagues (Sept 8, 2018, p880).1 The authors mentioned the autoimmune diseases (most notably, rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis) that can be associated with bronchiectasis and for which causative genes have not yet been identified. We agree with their conclusion; however, as they exclusively detailed the associated genetic risk loci in inflammatory bowel diseases, we would like to add that, to our knowledge, the only family-based association study in patients with non-cystic fibrosis diffuse bronchiectasis was done in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

[Correspondence] Rheumatoid arthritis-associated bronchiectasis – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sa, 18/05/2019 - 00:00
We appreciate the interest in our review of bronchiectasis.1 We thank Xavier Puéchal and colleagues for reminding us of the association between CFTR gene variants and outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and bronchiectasis.2,3 This idea supports our suggestion that therapeutic interventions might not only target the underlying causes, but the predisposing factors that can modify progression of disease. Perhaps drugs that modulate CFTR protein function could eventually be used in the treatment of such patients.
Condividi contenuti