Riviste scientifiche

Tech giants don’t want you fixing your phone. Time to fight back

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 20:00
Laws that would force gadget-makers to release repair manuals and tools are starting to win support, but meanwhile consumers are taking a DIY approach

Stem cells in the brain’s hypothalamus help mice stay young

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 20:00
A cluster of brain stem cells fight ageing in mice. They may do this by releasing molecules of micro-RNA – a process that anti-ageing drugs may be able to mimic

Aliens slumbering for billions of years are out there – really?

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 19:20
Trying to explain the Fermi paradox by invoking aliens that sleep for aeons is a speculative idea to be taken with a large pinch of salt, says Geraint Lewis

Donate your voice so Siri doesn’t just work for white men

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 19:12
Voice assistants can struggle with accents outside their test base of white, male users. Mozilla wants samples to create systems that can handle diversity

Donald Trump tweets plan to ban transgender people from military

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 18:01
The US president says it’s too expensive and disruptive to let transgender people serve in the armed forces, but a study commissioned by the Pentagon disagrees

UK ban on polluting cars by 2040 is just a cynical smokescreen

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 17:46
The UK government’s plan to ban the sale of diesel and petrol cars in two decades’ time is no help for those affected by air pollution

Fish can’t recognise faces if they’re upside down – just like us

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 17:41
Just like humans, the medaka fish that lives in rice paddies is good at identifying faces – but, again like us, it struggles when faces are the wrong way up

The games that build playgrounds out of impossible physics

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 17:37
Games that ask you to piece together alien physics are a great way for people to grasp the head-twisting concept of higher dimensions

Oldest mass animal stranding revealed in Death Valley fossils

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 17:01
About 540 million years ago a group of jellyfish washed ashore, died and fossilised – preserving evidence of the earliest example of an animal mass death event

Tiny robots swim the front crawl through your veins

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 17:00
Swarms of gold nanobots with rotating arms powered by magnetic fields could swim through the human body and deliver medicine directly where it’s needed

Lasers reactivate ‘lost’ memories in mice with Alzheimer’s

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 16:30
It was thought that Alzheimer’s completely erases memories, but a mouse experiment suggests the condition messes with our ability to recall them instead

Robot spots signs of melted fuel at submerged Fukushima reactor

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 14:00
An underwater robot captured images believed to be the first signs of melted nuclear reactor fuel that sank after the plant’s 2011 failure

Mysterious mega-swan once waddled through New Zealand

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 02:01
A larger relative of Australia’s black swan thrived in New Zealand – until humans arrived and helped bring about its extinction

Fungi use water droplet cannons to fling spores into the breeze

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 02:01
A pair of merging droplets help fungi to disperse their spores. Now researchers have figured out exactly how

Maths explains how bees can stay airborne with such tiny wings

New Scientist - Me, 26/07/2017 - 02:01
The tiny wings on bees shouldn’t be able to lift their big bodies. How they fly has eluded mathematicians since the 1930s, but the mystery is now solved

IL33-mediated ILC2 activation and neutrophil IL5 production in the lung response after severe trauma: A reverse translation study from a human cohort to a mouse trauma model

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 25/07/2017 - 23:00

by Jing Xu, Jesse Guardado, Rosemary Hoffman, Hui Xu, Rami Namas, Yoram Vodovotz, Li Xu, Mostafa Ramadan, Joshua Brown, Heth R. Turnquist, Timothy R. Billiar

Background

The immunosuppression and immune dysregulation that follows severe injury includes type 2 immune responses manifested by elevations in interleukin (IL) 4, IL5, and IL13 early after injury. We hypothesized that IL33, an alarmin released early after tissue injury and a known regulator of type 2 immunity, contributes to the early type 2 immune responses after systemic injury.

Methods and findings

Blunt trauma patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit of a level I trauma center were enrolled in an observational study that included frequent blood sampling. Dynamic changes in IL33 and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) levels were measured in the plasma and correlated with levels of the type 2 cytokines and nosocomial infection. Based on the observations in humans, mechanistic experiments were designed in a mouse model of resuscitated hemorrhagic shock and tissue trauma (HS/T). These experiments utilized wild-type C57BL/6 mice, IL33-/- mice, B6.C3(Cg)-Rorasg/sg mice deficient in group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), and C57BL/6 wild-type mice treated with anti-IL5 antibody.Severely injured human blunt trauma patients (n = 472, average injury severity score [ISS] = 20.2) exhibited elevations in plasma IL33 levels upon admission and over time that correlated positively with increases in IL4, IL5, and IL13 (P < 0.0001). sST2 levels also increased after injury but in a delayed manner compared with IL33. The increases in IL33 and sST2 were significantly greater in patients that developed nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction than similarly injured patients that did not (P < 0.05). Mechanistic studies were carried out in a mouse model of HS/T that recapitulated the early increase in IL33 and delayed increase in sST2 in the plasma (P < 0.005). These studies identified a pathway where IL33 induces ILC2 activation in the lung within hours of HS/T. ILC2 IL5 up-regulation induces further IL5 expression by CXCR2+ lung neutrophils, culminating in early lung injury. The major limitations of this study are the descriptive nature of the human study component and the impact of the potential differences between human and mouse immune responses to polytrauma. Also, the studies performed did not permit us to make conclusions about the impact of IL33 on pulmonary function.

Conclusions

These results suggest that IL33 may initiate early detrimental type 2 immune responses after trauma through ILC2 regulation of neutrophil IL5 production. This IL33–ILC2–IL5–neutrophil axis defines a novel regulatory role for ILC2 in acute lung injury that could be targeted in trauma patients prone to early lung dysfunction.

Reducing undiagnosed HIV infection among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: Provider-initiated and opt-out testing are not enough

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 25/07/2017 - 23:00

by Marguerita Lightfoot, Megan Dunbar, Sheri D. Weiser

Community efforts and peer support programs are needed in addition to provider-initiated and opt-out HIV testing in adolescents, Sheri Weiser and colleagues discuss.

Community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among adolescents in Zimbabwe following primary healthcare-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: A cross-sectional survey

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 25/07/2017 - 23:00

by Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Subathira Dakshina, Tsitsi Bandason, Grace McHugh, Shungu Munyati, Prosper Chonzi, Katharina Kranzer, Getrude Ncube, Collen Masimirembwa, Roslyn Thelingwani, Tsitsi Apollo, Richard Hayes, Helen A. Weiss, Rashida A. Ferrand

Background

Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Methods and findings

Over the course of 2 years (January 2013–January 2015), 7 primary health clinics (PHCs) in southwestern Harare implemented optimised, opt-out PITC for all attendees aged 6–15 years. In February 2015–December 2015, we conducted a representative cross-sectional survey of 8–17-year-olds living in the 7 communities served by the study PHCs, who would have had 2 years of exposure to PITC. Knowledge of HIV status was ascertained through a caregiver questionnaire, and anonymised HIV testing was carried out using oral mucosal transudate (OMT) tests. After 1 participant taking antiretroviral therapy was observed to have a false negative OMT result, from July 2015 urine samples were obtained from all participants providing OMTs and tested for antiretroviral drugs to confirm HIV status. Children who tested positive through PITC were identified from among survey participants using gender, birthdate, and location. Of 7,146 children in 4,251 eligible households, 5,486 (76.8%) children in 3,397 households agreed to participate in the survey, and 141 were HIV positive. HIV prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2%–3.1%), and over a third of participants with HIV were undiagnosed (37.7%; 95% CI 29.8%–46.2%). Similarly, among the subsample of 2,643 (48.2%) participants with a urine test result, 34.7% of those living with HIV were undiagnosed (95% CI 23.5%–47.9%). Based on extrapolation from the survey sample to the community, we estimated that PITC over 2 years identified between 18% and 42% of previously undiagnosed children in the community. The main limitation is that prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was defined using a combination of 3 measures (OMT, self-report, and urine test), none of which were perfect.

Conclusions

Facility-based approaches are inadequate in achieving universal coverage of HIV testing among older children and adolescents. Alternative, community-based approaches are required to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) target of diagnosing 90% of those living with HIV by 2020 in this age group.

Translational approaches to coagulopathy after trauma: Towards targeted treatment

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 25/07/2017 - 23:00

by Mitchell Jay Cohen

Mitchell J. Cohen discusses why trauma care must go beyond restoring perfusion to target disorders of inflammation and coagulation in severely injured patients.

The science of rapid start—From the when to the how of antiretroviral initiation

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 25/07/2017 - 23:00

by Elvin H. Geng, Diane V. Havlir

In this Perspective linked to Koenig and colleagues, Elvin Geng and Diane Havlir discuss the next challenges for implementation research around rapid start antiretroviral treatment.
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