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Weird backwards asteroid may be an interstellar immigrant

New Scientist - Lu, 21/05/2018 - 15:00
An asteroid that has been orbiting backwards near Jupiter for billions of years may actually be an interstellar rock captured by our solar system

Blood from umbilical cord may help fix your brain after a stroke

New Scientist - Lu, 21/05/2018 - 13:37
Ten people have received infusions of umbilical cord blood days after having a stroke, and they seem to have recovered better than would normally be expected

Plastic waste is a problem – but some solutions are even worse

New Scientist - Lu, 21/05/2018 - 12:00
Plastics have done wonders for hygiene and human health. We need to fix the waste problem – but don’t throw out the baby with the bath tub

Stunning first image sent back by NASA’s planet-hunter satellite

New Scientist - Do, 20/05/2018 - 20:46
The beauty of the skies is on display in this incredible image, the first sent back by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite on its way past the moon

[Editorial] Changing the conversation to make drug use safer

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Last week, the 2018 Global Drug Survey (GDS) published its annual findings on recreational drug use (both legal and illegal) among 130 000 people across 44 countries. The anonymised online survey uses a detailed questionnaire to assess trends in drug use and self-reported harms among regular drug users and early adopters of new trends. Although the survey is not designed to determine prevalence, it provides an invaluable source of information about the stigmatised behaviours and health outcomes of a hidden population that is otherwise difficult to reach.

[Editorial] False economy and global health security

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Last week, the DR Congo declared a new outbreak of Ebola, with two confirmed cases, 39 probable cases, and 19 deaths reported as we went to press. The threat of a new outbreak highlights the need for a focused and coordinated response from a broad range of international governmental and non-governmental agencies and organisations. The 2014–16 west African Ebola epidemic, with nearly 30 000 suspected Ebola deaths and thousands more due to lack of access to an overwhelmed health-care system, was devastating and cost more than US$3·6 billion ($2·4 billion from the USA), with an estimated $2·2 billion in lost GDP in the affected countries.

[Editorial] Balancing treatment with resistance in UTIs

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Urinary tract infections (UTIs), defined by the presence of bacteria in the urine combined with clinical features such as urinary frequency or dysuria, affect 10–20% of women at some time in their lives. New draft guidance from the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) aims to improve the rational prescribing of antibiotics for patients with lower UTIs and in a variety of special circumstances, such as recurrent UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, prostatitis, and pyelonephritis.

[Comment] Stroke units around the world: the success story continues

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Over the past 25 years, stroke units have become the standard for in-hospital stroke care.1 Today, all patients admitted with a diagnosis of stroke should be assessed by trained personnel and evaluated for eligibility of thrombolytic or thrombectomy treatment.2 Because of the improved outcomes reported in stroke units, the consensus among the scientific community is that no subtype, no severity of stroke, and no age group should be treated outside dedicated systems of stroke care.2

[Comment] Global governance of antimicrobial resistance

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Ensuring future generations have access to antimicrobials is high on the agenda for many heads of state, and almost all Ministers of Health. Following the UN General Assembly's 2016 High-Level Meeting on antimicrobial resistance (AMR), an ad-hoc Interagency Coordination Group (IACG), co-chaired by the UN Deputy Secretary-General and the Director-General of WHO, was tasked with providing guidance to political leaders on approaches needed to promote sustainable action on AMR.1

[Comment] Offline: Sexual and reproductive rights—health and hypocrisy

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Mark Heywood stood to ask his question in Johannesburg last week at the launch of the Guttmacher–Lancet Commission on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. He observed that we were in a country blighted with a “rape culture”—the epicentre of an epidemic of violations against sexual and reproductive rights. The country had no strategy for dealing with these violations. Only recently was a draft policy on teenage pregnancy written. Regression is taking place in access to abortion. And what, he asked, did we think about the present crisis engulfing UNAIDS? Michel Sidibé, its Executive Director, was arriving in South Africa that same day.

[World Report] Tramadol: Africa's opioid crisis

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Away from the headlines, another opioid abuse crisis is hitting Africa. Experts express concern about the rise in non-medical use of the analgesic. Laura Salm-Reifferscheidt reports from Lomé.

[World Report] HIV/AIDS community divided over allegations about UNAIDS

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Although terms of reference were agreed for an Independent Expert Panel on harassment, the controversy continues to divide the HIV/AIDS community. John Zarocostas reports.

[Perspectives] Osteoarthritis

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Stiffness and pain in the joints was for centuries seen as a mark of mortality, one of the natural shocks of old age: just look at Leonardo da Vinci or Thomas Rowlandson's caricatures of old people, with their crooked digits and knobbly joints. Since the 16th century, anatomists have been familiar with the basic structure of joints—bones capped with cartilage, connected by ligaments, and lubricated by synovial fluid—and the name they gave to the principal disorder of these joints is a classic example of plain English put into learned Greek: arthritis, literally joint inflammation.

[Obituary] Ruth Nussenzweig

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Immunologist and malaria researcher. She was born in Vienna, Austria, on June 20, 1928, and died in Manhattan, NY, USA, of a pulmonary embolism on April 1, 2018, aged 89 years.

[Correspondence] Clarification of INTERGROWTH-21st newborn birthweight standards

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
We are writing regarding José Villar and colleagues' INTERGROWTH-21st Project on international standards for newborn birthweight (Sept 6, 2014, p 857).1 We are assessing these standards, along with the project's estimated fetal weight standards,2 against French birthweight data. In doing so, we found it confusing whether the centile references in Villar and colleagues' study refer to completed weeks of gestation (ie, 36 weeks meaning all infants from 36 weeks plus 0 days, to 36 weeks plus 6 days) or exact weeks of gestation (ie, 36 weeks meaning infants born at 36 weeks plus 0 days only).

[Correspondence] Clarification of INTERGROWTH-21st newborn birthweight standards – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Jennifer Zeitlin and Isabelle Monier seek clarification regarding the INTERGROWTH-21st international standards for weight, length, and head circumference of newborn babies.1 Here we aim to clarify any misunderstanding regarding this comprehensive set of standards.

[Articles] Practice patterns and outcomes after stroke across countries at different economic levels (INTERSTROKE): an international observational study

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes.

[Clinical Picture] Horseshoe kidney in a deceased organ donor: a rare glimpse at an uncommon finding

The Lancet - Sa, 19/05/2018 - 00:00
A 42-year-old man was admitted to the trauma service with a single gunshot wound to the head. Upon diagnosis of brain death, he was referred for organ donation. The creatinine concentration was 1·00 mg/dL (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 92·4 mL/min per 1·73 m2) and the urine output was more than 100 mL/h. Prior to recovery of organs for donation, the CT scan showed a horseshoe kidney (figure). The kidneys were fused at their lower poles with the isthmus overlying the aorta. Hepato-pancreatic anatomy was only notable for a replaced right hepatic artery.

Grape skins and stems can be turned into a greener plastic

New Scientist - Ve, 18/05/2018 - 21:35
Someday you might buy wine in a plastic bottle made from the same grapes. Their skins, stems, and seeds can be used to make plastic that lasts longer

An AI can now tell how malnourished a child is just from a photo

New Scientist - Ve, 18/05/2018 - 18:06
A company in Kenya has devised a system that uses artificial intelligence to detect a child’s level of malnutrition from a photo, without bulky equipment or examinations
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